Lichens

A species list of lichens that occur in mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems in Australia.

This is an evolving list! Corrections, additions (and even suggested deletions) are welcome. If you have registered as a contributor, you can do this directly after you log in. If you would like to register, please go to the registration page?, otherwise please contact emma.clifton@csiro.au

Some observations about the table below

Anyone wishing to use the mangrove and saltmarsh lichen species table needs to be aware of how it was created and of the limitations of the data. More...

Lichens
Genus Species Infraspecies Notes Family Fidelity (H, M, L) Source Profile
299 taxa          
Anisomeridium albisedum     Monoblastiaceae   CANB viewtopic
Anisomeridium consobrinum     Monoblastiaceae   CANB viewtopic
Anisomeridium subprostans     Monoblastiaceae L CANB viewtopic
Anisomeridium terminatum     Monoblastiaceae   CANB viewtopic
Arthopyrenia malaccitula     Arthopyreniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Arthopyrenia planorbis     Arthopyreniaceae   CANB viewtopic
Austrographa kurriminensis     Roccellaceae H CANB viewtopic
Austrographa pseudopalidella     Roccellaceae H [1] viewtopic
Austrographa skyrinica   a Roccellaceae H [1] viewtopic
Austroparmelina conlabrosa     Parmeliaceae L CANB (as Parmelina conlabrosa) viewtopic
Brigantiaea tricolor     Brigantiaeaceae L CANB viewtopic
Buellia bahiana     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Buellia conspirans     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Buellia demutans     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Buellia fraudans     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Buellia rechingeri     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Buellia subtropica     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Bulbothrix apohysata     Parmeliaceae   [2] viewtopic
Bulbothrix bicornuta     Parmeliaceae H [2] viewtopic
Bulbothrix goebelii     Parmeliaceae M CANB viewtopic
Bulbothrix isidiza     Parmeliaceae L [2] viewtopic
Bulbothrix microscopica     Parmeliaceae H CANB viewtopic
Bulbothrix queenslandica     Parmeliaceae L [2] viewtopic
Bulbothrix tabacina     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Caloplaca bassiae     Teloschistaceae L CANB viewtopic
Caloplaca byrsonimae     Teloschistaceae   CANB  
Caloplaca filsonii     Teloschistaceae H [3] viewtopic
Caloplaca filsoniorum     Teloschistaceae   CANB viewtopic
Caloplaca pulcherrima     Teloschistaceae   CANB viewtopic
Canoparmelia texana     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Chrysothrix xanthina     Chrysotrichaceae L CANB viewtopic
Cladonia floerkeana     Cladoniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Cladonia macilenta     Cladoniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Coccocarpia adnata     Coccocarpiaceae L CANB viewtopic
Coccocarpia dissecta     Coccocarpiaceae L CANB viewtopic
Coccocarpia erythroxyli     Coccocarpiaceae L CANB viewtopic
Coccocarpia palmicola     Coccocarpiaceae L CANB viewtopic
Coccocarpia pellita     Coccocarpiaceae L CANB viewtopic
Collema implicatum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Collema leucocarpum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Collema rugosum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Cratiria aggrediens     Physciaceae   CANB viewtopic
Cratiria lauricassiae     Physciaceae   CANB viewtopic
Cratiria melanochlora     Physciaceae   CANB viewtopic
Crocynia pyxinoides     Crocyniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Cryptothecia atropunctata   a Arthoniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Cryptothecia exilis   a Arthoniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Cryptothecia scripta     Arthoniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Diorygma hieroglyphicum     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Diorygma junghuhnii     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Diorygma rufopruinosum     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Dirinaria aegialita     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Dirinaria applanata     Physciaceae   CANB viewtopic
Dirinaria confluens     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Dirinaria consimilis   d Physciaceae L [4] viewtopic
Dirinaria melanoclina   d Physciaceae L [4] viewtopic
Dirinaria picta     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Dirinaria purpurascens     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Dirinaria subconfluens     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Dyplolabia afzelii     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Enterographa compunctula     Rocellaceae   [5] viewtopic
Fibrillithecis halei     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Flavoparmelia euplecta     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Flavoparmelia haysomii   d Parmeliaceae L [4] (as Pseudoparmelia caperata) viewtopic
Flavoparmelia rutidota   a Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Flavoparmelia succinprotocetrarica     Parmeliaceae L [7] viewtopic
Fuscopannaria decipiens     Pannariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Glyphis scyphulifera     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis aquilonia     Graphidaceae L [8] viewtopic
Graphis caesiella     Graphidaceae L [8] viewtopic
Graphis cincta     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis emersa     Graphidaceae L CANB (as cf. Graphis emersa) viewtopic
Graphis furcata     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis geraensis     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis gonimica     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis mucronata     Graphidaceae L CANB (as Platygramme mucronata) viewtopic
Graphis rimulosa     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis stenotera     Graphidaceae L [8] viewtopic
Graphis streimannii     Graphidaceae M CANB viewtopic
Graphis tenuirima     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Graphis vinosa     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Haematomma accolens     Haematommaceae H [9] viewtopic
Haematomma africanum     Haematommaceae L [10] viewtopic
Haematomma collatum   a Haematommaceae   CANB viewtopic
Haematomma persoonii     Haematommaceae L CANB viewtopic
Haematomma stevensiae     Haematommaceae M CANB viewtopic
Herpothallon albidum     Arthoniaceae L CANB viewtopic
Heterodermia dissecta     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Heterodermia japonica     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Heterodermia microphylla     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Heterodermia obscurata     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Heterodermia speciosa     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Heterodermia tremulans     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Hyperphyscia adglutinata     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Hyperphyscia pandani     Physciaceae   CANB viewtopic
Hypotrachyna immaculata     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Hypotrachyna osseoalba     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Jackelixia elixii     Teloschistaceae L [11] (as Xanthoria elixii) viewtopic
Jackelixia ligulata     Teloschistaceae L CANB viewtopic
Jackelixia streimannii     Teloschistaceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora achroa     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora alba     Lecanoraceae L [12] viewtopic
Lecanora argentata     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora arthothelinella     Lecanoraceae L [12] viewtopic
Lecanora austrotropica     Lecanoraceae M [12] viewtopic
Lecanora caesiorubella     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora elatinoides     Lecanoraceae M CANB viewtopic
Lecanora flavidofusca     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora flavopallida     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora helva     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora interjecta     Lecanoraceae L [12] viewtopic
Lecanora leproplaca     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora leprosa     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Lecanora pseudoargentata     Lecanoraceae L [12] viewtopic
Lecanora queenslandica     Lecanoraceae L [12] viewtopic
Lecanora tropica     Lecanoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Leiorreuma hypomelaenum     Graphidaceae L [13] (as Phaeographis hypomelaena) viewtopic
Leptogium austroamericanum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Leptogium cochleatum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Leptogium coralloideum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Leptogium corticola   a Collemataceae   CANB viewtopic
Leptogium faciifictum     Collemataceae L [14] viewtopic
Letrouitia hafellneri     Letrouitiaceae L [15] viewtopic
Letrouitia leprolytoides     Letrouitiaceae L [15] viewtopic
Leucodecton compunctellum     Graphidaceae M [6] viewtopic
Leucodecton occultatum     Graphidaceae M [6] viewtopic
Melanotrema endomelaenum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Mycomicrothelia subfallens     Trypetheliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Mycoporum eschweileri     Mycoporaceae   [16] (as Tomasellia eschweileri) viewtopic
Myelochroa aurulenta   d Parmeliaceae L [4] (as Parmelina aurulenta) viewtopic
Myriotrema olivaceum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Myriotrema phaeosporum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Myriotrema rugiferum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Myriotrema subconforme     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Ocellularia arecae     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Ocellularia aurata     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Ocellularia bahiana     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Ocellularia confluens     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Ocellularia gibberulosa     Graphidaceae   [6] viewtopic
Ocellularia pyrenuloides     Graphidaceae H [6] viewtopic
Ochrolechia africana     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ochrolechia gyrophorica     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ochrolechia hawaiensis     Pertusariaceae L CANB  
Opegrapha agelaeotera     Rocellaceae   CANB viewtopic
Opegrapha semiatra     Rocellaceae   CANB viewtopic
Pannaria elatior     Pannariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pannaria elixii     Pannariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pannaria globigera     Pannariaceae   CANB viewtopic
Pannaria lurida   b Pannariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pannaria mangroviana     Pannariaceae H [17] viewtopic
Pannaria reflectens     Pannariaceae L [17] viewtopic
Pannaria subcrustacea     Pannariaceae   [17] viewtopic
Parmelia erumpens   d Parmeliaceae L [4] viewtopic
Parmeliella aggregata     Pannariaceae L [17] viewtopic
Parmeliella brisbanensis     Pannariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmeliella granulifera     Pannariaceae H [17] viewtopic
Parmeliella mariana     Pannariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmelinopsis horrescens     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmelinopsis neodamaziana   d Parmeliaceae L [4] (as Parmelina damaziana) viewtopic
Parmelinopsis spumosa     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema austrosinense   d Parmeliaceae L [4]  
Parmotrema crinitum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema cristiferum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema dilatatum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema gardneri     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema norsticticatum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema paracrinitum   a Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema parahypotropum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema rampoddense   d Parmeliaceae L [4] viewtopic
Parmotrema reticulatum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema robustum   d Parmeliaceae L [4] viewtopic
Parmotrema saccatilobum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema subtinctorium     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Parmotrema tinctorum     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria atromaculata     Pertusariaceae H [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria cicatricosa     Pertusariaceae L [19] viewtopic
Pertusaria clarkeana     Pertusariaceae M [20] viewtopic
Pertusaria commutata     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria elliptica     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria erythrella     Pertusariaceae L [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria hartmanii     Pertusariaceae L [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria hermaka     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria irregularis     Pertusariaceae H CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria isidiosa     Pertusariaceae H [20] viewtopic
Pertusaria leiocarpella     Pertusariaceae L [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria leioplacella     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria melaleucoides     Pertusariaceae H CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria nebulosa     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria novaehollandiae     Pertusariaceae M CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria paradoxica var. paradoxica   Pertusariaceae L [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria pertractata     Pertusariaceae L [18] (as Pertusaria gibberosa) viewtopic
Pertusaria pertusella     Pertusariaceae L [19] viewtopic
Pertusaria porinella     Pertusariaceae H CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria pycnothelia     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria scaberula     Pertusariaceae L [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria "subradians"   c Pertusariaceae   CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria texana     Pertusariaceae L [21] viewtopic
Pertusaria thamnolica     Pertusariaceae L [19] viewtopic
Pertusaria thiospoda     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria thwaitesii     Pertusariaceae L [18] viewtopic
Pertusaria undulata     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria velata     Pertusariaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pertusaria xanthonaria     Pertusariaceae H [18] viewtopic
Phaeographis brasiliensis     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Phaeographis ceratoides     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Phaeographis neotricosa     Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Phaeographis subdividens   a Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Phaeographis subintricata   a Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Phyllopsora buettneri     Phyllopsoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Phyllopsora rappiana     Phyllopsoraceae L CANB viewtopic
Physcia adscendens     Physciaceae L [22] viewtopic
Physcia atrostriata     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Physcia decorticata     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Physcia erumpens     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Physcia krogiae     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Physcia sorediosa     Physciaceae   [22] viewtopic
Physma byrsaeum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Physma plicatum     Collemataceae L CANB viewtopic
Porina perminuta   a Porinaceae   CANB viewtopic
Protoparmelia australiensis     Lecanoraceae H CANB viewtopic
Punctelia subflava     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyrenula concatervans     Pyrenulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyrenula confinis     Pyrenulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyrenula microcarpa     Pyrenulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyrenula ochraceoflava     Pyrenulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyrenula quassiaecola   a Pyrenulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyxine australiensis     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyxine berteriana     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyxine cocoes     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyxine convexior     Physciaceae L [23] viewtopic
Pyxine copelandii     Physciaceae L [13]  
Pyxine fallax     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyxine farinosa     Physciaceae L [23] (as Pyxine linearis) viewtopic
Pyxine keralensis     Physciaceae L CANB (as Pyxine isidiolenta) viewtopic
Pyxine pungens     Physciaceae L [23] viewtopic
Pyxine retirugella     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Pyxine subcinerea     Physciaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ramalina australiensis     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina canariensis     Ramalinaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ramalina celastri subsp. celastri   Ramalinaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ramalina confirmata     Ramalinaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ramalina exiguella     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina fissa     Ramalinaceae L [24] viewtopic
Ramalina glaucescens     Ramalinaceae L CANB viewtopic
Ramalina inflata subsp. australis   Ramalinaceae L [24] viewtopic
Ramalina inflata subsp. inflata   Ramalinaceae L [24] viewtopic
Ramalina inflata subsp. perpusilla   Ramalinaceae L [24] viewtopic
Ramalina leiodea     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina luciae     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina nervulosa     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina pacifica     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina peruviana     Ramalinaceae L [24] viewtopic
Ramalina subfraxinea var. nortstictica   Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina subfraxinea var. subfraxinea   Ramalinaceae M CANB  
Ramalina tenella     Ramalinaceae M [24] viewtopic
Ramalina tropica     Ramalinaceae M CANB viewtopic
Ramalina unilateralis     Ramalinaceae L [24] viewtopic
Relicina abstrusa     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Relicina amphithrix     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Relicina circumnodata     Parmeliaceae L [25] viewtopic
Relicina conglutinata     Parmeliaceae H CANB viewtopic
Relicina connivens     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Relicina planiuscula     Parmeliaceae L [25] viewtopic
Relicina ramosissima     Parmeliaceae H [25] viewtopic
Relicina samoensis     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Relicina subabstrusa     Parmeliaceae H [25] viewtopic
Relicina sublanea     Parmeliaceae H CANB viewtopic
Relicina sydneyensis     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Relicina terricrocodila     Parmeliaceae H CANB viewtopic
Relicinopsis intertexta     Parmeliaceae H [26] viewtopic
Relicinopsis malaccensis     Parmeliaceae L [26] viewtopic
Relicinopsis rahengensis     Parmeliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Rinodina australiensis     Physciaceae   CANB viewtopic
Sarcographa subtricosa   a Graphidaceae L CANB viewtopic
Sarcographa tricosa   a Graphidaceae   CANB viewtopic
Schismatomma occultum     Roccellaceae   CANB viewtopic
Sclerophyton conspicuum     Roccellaceae   CANB viewtopic
Sclerophyton rostratum     Roccellaceae   CANB viewtopic
Strigula orbicularis   a Strigulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Strigula smaragdula   a Strigulaceae L CANB viewtopic
Teloschistes flavicans   d Teloschistaceae L [4]  
Tephromela alectoronica     Mycoblastaceae L CANB viewtopic
Tephromela isidiosa   a Mycoblastaceae   CANB viewtopic
Thecaria quassiicola     Graphidaceae L [27] (as Phaeographina quassiicola) viewtopic
Thelotrema bicinctulum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Thelotrema capetribulense     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Thelotrema lacteum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Thelotrema lepadodes     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Thelotrema monosporum     Graphidaceae L CANB  
Thelotrema pachysporum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Thelotrema rugatulum     Graphidaceae L [6] viewtopic
Trypethelium tropicum     Trypetheliaceae L CANB viewtopic
Usnea bismolliuscula     Usneaceae L [28] viewtopic
Usnea dasaea     Usneaceae L [29] (as Usnea undulata) viewtopic
Usnea nidifica     Usneaceae M [28] viewtopic
Usnea ramulosissima     Usneaceae M [28] viewtopic
Usnea rubicunda     Usneaceae L [29] (as Usnea rubicunda var. rubicunda) viewtopic
Usnea rubrotincta     Usneaceae L [29] (as Usnea rubicunda var. spilota) viewtopic
Xanthoria coomae     Teloschistaceae L CANB  

Fidelity rankings

Species found in mangrove and saltmarsh communities are rated according to the 'fidelity' of their occurrence:

  • High fidelity - occur almost exclusively in mangrove and saltmarsh communities (obligate).
  • Medium fidelity - often occur in mangrove and saltmarsh communities, but also occur in similar adjacent communities (facultative).
  • Low fidelity - occasionally occur in mangrove and saltmarsh communities, but not regularly (transitory, marginal).
These categories are to some degree subjective and may vary regionally so that species may end up in more than one category.

References

  1. Sparrius, L.B., Elix, J.A. & Archer, A.W. (2010). Austrographa, a new genus in the Roccellaceae with three species from Australia. Australasian Lichenology, 67: 23-28. Available online: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/AL_67.pdf (more)
  2. Elix, J.A. (1994). Bulbothrix. Flora of Australia, 55: 13-19. (more)
  3. Kondratyuk, S.Y., K?rnefelt, E.I., Elix, J.A. & Thell, A. (2007). New species of the genus Caloplaca in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 95: 341-386. (more)
  4. Stevens, G.N. & Rogers, R.W. (1979). The Macrolichen Flora from the Mangroves of Moreton Bay. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 90: 33-49. (more)
  5. Sparrius, L.B. (2004). A monograph of Enterographa and Sclerophyton. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 89: 1-141. (more)
  6. Mangold, A., Elix, J.A. & Lumbsch, H.T. (2009). Thelotremataceae. Flora of Australia, 57: 195-420. (more)
  7. Elix, J.A. & Johnston, J. (1988). New species and new reports of Flavoparmelia (lichenized Ascomycotina) from the Southern Hemisphere. Mycotaxon, 33: 391-400. This issue of Mycotaxon is accessible on the Cyberliber website: http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/cyberliber/ (more)
  8. Archer, A.W. (2006). The lichen family Graphidaceae in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 94: 1-191. (more)
  9. Elix, J.A. (2004). Haematommataceae. Flora of Australia, 56A: 4-10. (more)
  10. Kalb, K., Hafellner, J. and Staiger, B. (1995). Lichenicole Pilze auf Arten der Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 59: 199-222 & Abbildungen 1-27. (more)
  11. Kondratyuk, S.Y., K?rnefelt, E.I. & Thell, A. (2006), New species of Xanthoria (Teloschistaceae) from Australia. Nuytsia, 16: 63-76. (more)
  12. Lumbsch, H.T. & Elix, J.A. (2004). Lecanora. Flora of Australia, 56A: 12-62. (more)
  13. Kalb, K. (2001). New or otherwise interesting lichens. I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 78: 141-167. (more)
  14. Verdon, D. (1992). Leptogium. Flora of Australia, 54: 173-192. (more)
  15. Elix, J.A. (2009). Letrouitiaceae. Flora of Australia, 57: 483-493. (more)
  16. Owe-Larsson, B. and Aptroot, A. (2006). Additional lichen records from Australia 61. Some pyrenocarpous lichens. Australasian Lichenology, 59: 20-21. Available online: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/AL_59.pdf (more)
  17. J?rgensen, P.M. (2001). New species and records of the lichen family from Pannariaceae Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 78: 109-139. (more)
  18. Archer, A.W. (1997). The lichen genus Pertusaria in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 69: 1-249. (more)
  19. Archer, A.W. (1992). Additional new species and new reports of Pertusaria (lichenised Ascomycotina) from Australia. Mycotaxon, 44: 13-20. This issue of Mycotaxon is accessible on the Cyberliber website: http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/cyberliber/ (more)
  20. Archer, A.W. (2004). Pertusariaceae. Flora of Australia, 56A: 116-172. (more)
  21. Archer, A.W. & Elix, J.A. (2010). Three new species and four new reports in the Australian Pertusariaceae. Australasian Lichenology, 67: 14-22. Available online: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/AL_67.pdf (more)
  22. Moberg, R. (2001). The lichen genus Physcia in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 78: 289-311. (more)
  23. Rogers, R.W. (1986). The genus Pyxine (Physiaceae, lichenized ascomycetes) in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany, 34: 131-154. (more)
  24. Stevens, G.N. (1987). The lichen genus Ramalina in Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series, 16: 107-223. (more)
  25. Elix, J.A. (1994). Relicina. Flora of Australia, 55: 168-182. (more)
  26. Elix, J.A. (1994). Relicinopsis. Flora of Australia, 55: 182-185. (more)
  27. Archer, A.W. (2001). The lichen genera Phaeographis and Phaeographina (Graphidaceae) in Australia 2: Phaeographina - new reports and new species. Telopea, 9: 329-344. (more)
  28. Stevens, G.N. (2004). Usneaceae. Flora of Australia, 56A: 78-115. (more)
  29. Stevens, G.N. (1999). A revision of the lichen family Usneaceae in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 72: 1-128. (more)